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Brown Rot - Types of Plant Diseases and How to Treat Them Naturally

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17 Types of Plant Diseases and How to Treat Them Naturally

If you’re a farmer or plant enthusiast, be it for a hobby or your profession, then you’re all too painfully aware of the reality of plant diseases.

Some of them can wiggle their way in unnoticed and ravage your crops before you even have a chance to fight back.

Plant disease can be anything from a simple fungal infection to full-on bio-warfare.

Fortunately, you do have ways of fighting against these tiny little buggers, and these methods are entirely natural, too.

Losing even a few units of crops to plant diseases can be devastating if they’re your full income, plus all the time, money and care you spent in building your fields and gardens.

We’re here to help you sort through some different methods to make the process a little easier to bear.

The Different Types of Plant Diseases and How to Treat Them Naturally

Below are 17 different types of plant diseases and how to recognize and treat them.

It isn’t easy, recognizing and dealing with so many types of plant diseases, but it’s doable and it’s totally realistic to handle it entirely naturally. 

1. Bacterial Canker

Bacterial CankerImage via compuventas.com.co

This fruit killer likes to show up right after the trees have been wounded, either through pruning or something else that causes a gash in the bark.

It takes the form of sunken, water-soaked and gummy looking lesions on the trunk or twigs.

Preventing Bacterial Canker

To prevent, prune trees during blooming for fast healing and remove weeds and grass from around the base of the tree.

Organocide 3-in-1 Garden Spray is a great organic treatment to use against canker and it’s eco-friendly as well.

Just be careful to only prune during blooming and never otherwise to drastically improve your chances of missing canker this year. 

2. Blossom End Rot 

Blossom End Rot Image via smallfootprintfamily.com

You’ll find this dark brown, sunken in patch in tomatoes and peppers most commonly, and it’s an environmental issue caused by lack of calcium or under-watering.

Preventing Blossom End Rot

To prevent it, mix bone meal or oyster shells into the soil to bring up the calcium levels.

Use mulch to help keep soil evenly moist and retain this moisture for long periods.

You can also find a whole host of natural fertilizers in this article for extra assistance.

With mulch, your water will be distributed more evenly, preventing blossom end rot from easily taking hold.

Because blossom end rot isn’t a fungal or bacterial problem, fungicides won’t help here. 

3. Brown Rot 

Brown Rot - Types of Plant Diseases and How to Treat Them NaturallyImage via weeklytimesnow.com.au

This is another fruit killer plant disease and it’s very common.

Brown rot likes to hide out in mummified fruit that wasn’t collected and it can kill off a whole tree fairly quickly.

Fruits will show circular brown spots with rotting areas producing clumps of gray spores.

Getting Rid of Brown Rot

There are resistant types of plants you can incorporate, and if you see the infection, remove and destroy the plant ASAP.

Water the tree from below to keep blossoms and fruit dry and if you need to, Organocide organic treatment works very well against this threat. 

4. Club Root

Club RootImage via producer.com

Brassica plants (cruciferous vegetables, mustard plants, cauliflower, kale, cabbages, etc.) are most at risk of this root killer.

Once it implants, it causes the roots to form improperly and swollen, preventing water and nutrients from being properly absorbed.

The plants around the base will turn brown or yellow and start to die. The spores can survive in the soil for up to ten years, so treatment is crucial.

Preventing Club Root

You can’t use organic fungicides, so focus on cleaning your garden and rotating your crops.

Weed carefully and keep your soil’s pH balance at alkaline 7.2, testing it frequently throughout the season.

5. Anthracnose Fungus

Anthracnose FungusImage via almanac.com

A vicious little fungal infection that resembles dark, water-soaked lesions on the plants, filled with gelatinous pink masses of spores on the inside.

It generally affects tropical foliage plants and woody ornamentals.

Treating Anthracnose

To treat this plant disease ahead of time, you’ll want to try to select varieties of resistant plants with western grown seeds that haven’t been exposed to this typically eastern fungus.

Use Serenade Garden bio-friendly and non-toxic fungicide that won’t harm your plants or pollinators.

This means that bees can come and go uninhibited and continue to pollinate your plants without a care in the world. 

6. Damping Off

Damping OffImage via groworganic.com

The seedling killer, a soil-borne fungal killer of new seeds and seedlings.

Unfortunately, there’s no cure once it’s taken hold, as it causes the new plants to become mushy and water-soaked, killing them at the base.

Preventing Damping Off

But by providing good air circulation and using an organic bio-fungicide like Southern Ag, you stand a good chance of protecting the seedlings from this silent killer. 

7. Downy Mildew

Downy MildewImage via flickr.com

This mildew appears on leaf surfaces as yellow or white patches, with the undersides of the leaves featuring white or gray cotton-like fungi.

They make themselves known just after a rain, disappearing again when the sun comes out.

This plant disease can cause the leaves to crisp up and fall off even with water.

Getting Rid of Downy Mildew

You can fight downy mildew by staking your plants and watering early in the morning so they can dry out during the day.

Remove and destroy any infected plants right away and apply GrowSafe whenever necessary to assist in the destruction of the mildew. 

8. Early Blight

Early BlightImage via pestnet.org

This is a common bane of tomato and potato plants, creating brown spots in a bullseye pattern on the older leaves, turning them yellow and causing them to wither.

Preventing Early Blight

By pruning and staking plants, as well as keeping the soil clean and debris free gives them a good chance of survival.

By adding organic compost, you can also further protect the vegetation from soil spores.

Serenade organic garden fungicide can also work wonders in protection against this fungus. 

9. Fusarium Wilt

Fusarium WiltImage via fieldcrops.cals.cornell.edu

This soil-borne pathogen attacks all kinds of common plants like potatoes, peppers, and tomatoes.

It restricts water flow to the plants, causing them to wither and die quickly. The symptoms don’t usually show up until late in the growing season.

Preventing Fusarium Wilt

Same as most of the other plant diseases, try to select resistant varieties of plants and remove stricken plants from the garden when discovered.

You can also use organic high-nitrogen fertilizers to add extra immunity, as well as slow-release organic fertilizers. 

10. Gray Mold 

Gray MoldImage via koppertus.com

This one can affect just about everything, showing up as a cluster of gray spores that attach to the fruit or vegetable in question and spread rapidly.

Gray mold usually develops in high humidity and cause fruit and plants to shrivel.

Getting Rid of Gray Mold

Use a fan or stakes to improve airflow and use a generous amount of organic compost or mulch beneath the plants.

Water early in the morning with a soaker hose and allow plants to dry thoroughly.

GrowSafe garden fungicide can also help to provide the final oomph against the invader. 

11. Late Blight

Late Blight - Types of Plant Diseases and How to Treat Them NaturallyImage via thespruce.com

Tomatoes and potatoes get the worst of this one, a fungal infection that doesn’t occur until late into the growing season.

Late Blight appears as water-soaked gray spots on older leaves which darken with white fungal growth beneath the leaves appearing.

Interestingly enough, this was the cause of the Irish potato famine in the mid-1800s.

Preventing Late Blight

Some plants are resistant to it, and early soaker waterings help prevent it from appearing.

All debris must be destroyed following the harvest. 

12. Leaf Curl 

Leaf CurlImage via baag.com.au

This is an annoying plant disease that likes peaches and nectarines and is the bane of orchards everywhere.

Reddish areas develop thick puckering that causes leaves to curl in on themselves.

Preventing Leaf Curl

To prevent, rake the ground beneath the trees regularly and apply organic fertilizers while cutting back more fruit than normal. 

13. Leaf Spot

Leaf SpotImage via nwdistrict.ifas.ufl.edu

A pathogen that causes leaf spots to form on stone fruit trees and some kinds of vegetables like peppers, tomatoes, and lettuce.

Brown or black water-soak spots will start to appear larger and larger and run together, causing leaves to wither and dry up.

Preventing Leaf Spot

To prevent, make sure the soil beneath is kept clean and moist, applying generous mulch if need be.

Prune or stake the plants for added circulation. 

14. Mosaic Virus 

Mosaic VirusImage via almanac.com

This plant disease affects too many to list, but it often creates yellow, white, or green markings on the leaves and causes smaller leaves to wrinkle or curl.

Fruit appears warty and mottled when it comes in.

Preventing Mosaic Virus

There’s no cure for the mosaic virus, so make every effort you’d normally use to prevent this plant disease by cleaning, weeding, and staking as much as possible. 

15. Potato Scab

Potato ScabImage via allotment-garden.org

Potato growers are very familiar and annoyed with this one. It’s found wherever there are potatoes, much to the chagrin of the farmers.

Symptoms resemble dark brown patchy areas that can look like raised warts.

Potato scab can affect a small section or completely envelop the whole potato. The spores can survive indefinitely in low-acidity soil and can enter directly through the skin of any young tuber.

Preventing Potato Scab

To avoid, practice regular rotation of crops and keep pH levels at 5.2 or lower.

Make sure your potatoes have adequate irrigation methods and whatever you do, do NOT overwater. 

16. Powdery Mildew 

Powdery Mildew - Image via almanac.com

Thankfully, this plant disease is different from the others in that it has a very limited host range.

They aren’t very likely to spread from their infected plant to another in close proximity if it isn’t a good match. But if your soil is low moisture in high humidity, you can expect to see it at some point.

This is a late-blooming plant disease that affects outdoor plants and creates raised, blister-like areas causing leaves to curl and creating a white, powdery substance on the upper surfaces of the leaves which prevents them from opening.

Getting Rid of Powdery Mildew

It’s best to plant your seedlings in sunny locations with regular pruning and stakes applied. Make sure to keep the ground debris-free and use a thick layer of added mulch.

You can also use milk sprays to further discourage the mildew from forming.

This spray is made from 40% milk and 60% water as an effective home remedy that can actually be used on a wide variety of different crops.

You can also use Neem Oil or GrowSafe as an added bio-friendly technique.

Finally, destroy all plants after harvest. 

17. Rust Fungus

Rust Fungus - Types of Plant Diseases and How to Treat Them NaturallyImage via britannica.com

Bad news; there are over 5,000 different species of rust on plants and they can attack almost anything from crops to lawns.

It looks like white raised spots on the undersides of leaves which become covered in rust-colored masses of spores and eventually cause discoloration and leaf dropping.

Good news; these plant diseases can be dealt with.

Treating Rust Fungus

By watering early in the morning with a soaker hose, you give the plants time to dry off during the day.

Use a slow-release organic fertilizer to avoid excess nitrogen distribution.

You can also use Serenade again for an extra layer of protection if the problem worsens. And a thick layer of mulch beneath the plants certainly never hurt.

Takeaway 

The variety of plant diseases out there is truly mind-boggling, especially since some of them literally can’t be stopped once they take hold.

However, there are always healthy habits you can get into to protect your plants in advance from any organisms looking for an easy meal.

Just stay calm, use your natural green thinking and get busy.

Sasha Brown

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